Country profiles


Fossil fuels accounted for 83% of China’s energy supply in 2017, and 70% of electricity generation in 2018. The increase in fossil fuelled electricity generation in 2018 was twice that from hydro and renewables combined.


Fossil fuels accounted for 90% of Australia’s energy supply in 2017, and 79% of electricity generation in 2019. Just over half of energy consumed was from oil.

Australia’s fossil fuel exports

Australia has become the largest exporter of metallurgical coal and LNG, and the 2nd largest exporter of thermal coal. Expansion of these exports on prodigious scale is a priority for both major Australian political parties.


In 2017, fossil fuels accounted for 22% of Sweden’s energy supply and only 1.2% of electricity generation. Roughly equal shares of nuclear, hydro and biofuels supply almost ¾ of Sweden’s energy, enabling it to report that it has substantially decarbonised, but the Swedish government and the bioenergy trade association claim biofuel energy is carbon-neutral, which may not be the case and may have resulted in an under-reporting of CO₂ emissions.


Generation of electricity from coal plummeted, and CO₂ emissions from fossil fuels declined by 30% between 2008 and 2018. Despite this, fossil fuels accounted for 76% of the UK’s energy supply in 2017, and 45% of electricity generation in 2018.