Photo – Cypress forest, Potecasi Creek, North Carolina, clearcut to supply wood pellets.1 There is a perception that energy from solid biofuels is carbon-neutral, but this is not necessarily true. As stated in the post World Energy Supply, 9.4% of world energy in 2016 was supplied by biofuels and waste, and 93% of this was […]

Part 3 – A Safe Climate

Photo – Heads of delegations at the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP21), which led to the signing of the Paris Agreement.1 This post presents the current predicament of world emissions and explains the prominent studies that seek to make our climate safe. Humanity’s CO2 emissions by country for year 2016 are shown in chart 1 – But […]

Part 1 – Energy Emissions

Photo – Kooragang coal export terminal stockyards, Port Waratah Coal Services, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia.1 Humanity’s greenhouse gas emissions originate from three sectors: energy, cement manufacture and land use. This page explains that carbon dioxide (CO2) is the greenhouse gas of greatest concern, and almost all our CO2 emissions originate from our energy sector. […]

Climate & Energy Summary

Image – Warming projections, Climate Action Tracker1 This short page summarises why and how our energy systems must change for a chance of a safe climate. Parts 1, 2, and 3 of this section explain this in greater detail. Cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) determines our long-term warming commitment,2 and almost all is due to our […]

The Energy System of Sweden

Photo – View from Stadshustornet (town hall tower), Stockholm (the capital of Sweden), September 2013.1 This page profiles the energy system of Sweden using freely available data from the IEA2 and the method described in this site’s introduction. Summary Sweden’s energy supply in 2016 (the most recent year of free IEA data) was admirably 24% […]

The Energy System of Australia

Photo – Keeper Reef on the Once-Great Barrier Reef, Australia.1 This page profiles the energy system of Australia using freely available data from the IEA2 and the method described in this site’s introduction. Australia’s energy supply is profiled first, followed by energy consumption and finally Australia’s fossil fuel exports. Being a resource-cursed nation, Australia’s national […]

World Energy Consumption

Photo – Yingze Bridge, Taiyuan City, China, May 27, 2013.1 An energy system is conventionally represented by the figure below – This post discusses the world’s total final consumption (TFC), here referred to as simply ‘energy consumption’. As shown in the diagram above, this is energy after conversions. The forms and quantities of energy we […]

World Energy Supply

Photo – Petroleum refinery in Detroit.1 Most of the world’s energy is supplied by oil. As with other posts on this site, this uses data from the IEA2 and BP.3 Although the latest year of data from BP is more recent than that from the IEA (2018 vs 2016 respectively), BP’s data doesn’t fully account […]