World total final consumption

Total final consumption, also known as final energy, accounts for the consumption of each fuel in its final form of energy. In 2018, 21% of energy was consumed as electricity and 64% directly as fossil fuels (e.g. combustion of oil). In 2019 63% of electricity was generated by fossil fuels.

World carbon intensity

Carbon intensity of TES is the annual mass of emitted CO₂ per unit of total energy supply, and is a measure of the carbonisation of an energy system.
There was no net-decarbonisation of the world energy system from year 2000 to the end of 2016.

World total energy supply

In 2019 the world continued to add supplies of fossil fuels. Carbon-free additions were greater than fossil fuel additions, but only by 9%.
Excluding the impacts of the GFC in 2009, additions of renewables have not outpaced fossil fuels since 1993.

Energy accounting

An explainer about methods for accounting of the supply and consumption of energy.

Anthropogenic CO₂ emissions

In 2018, 83% of anthropogenic CO₂ emissions originated from fossil fuel combustion. 46% of this in 2017 was from only 11 economic sectors within 5 countries.

World electricity generation

In 2019, annual electricity generation by fossil fuels reduced for the first time since 2015; the only instances in the past decade.
During 2016-19, additional wind electricity generation faltered, and that from solar slowed.


There is a perception that energy from solid biofuels is carbon-neutral, but this is not necessarily true.

Changing temperature extremes

Global warming is often described and summarised as a change of global mean surface temperature (e.g. the ‘1.5˚C’ temperature limit that formed part of the ‘Paris Agreement’). This page describes the consequential changes to seasonal extremes.


CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry in 2020 increased 90% since 1980, when the first joint scientific meeting about CO2 was held, and 57% since the first ‘international climate summit’ (COP1) in 1995.

Our current path

Every year energy use increases, and most of the increases come from fossil fuels. Current policies presently in place around the world are projected to result in about 3.3°C warming above pre-industrial levels.