The Energy System of Sweden

Summary Roughly equal shares of nuclear, hydro, and biofuels supplied 71% of Sweden’s energy in 2017, and the share of fossil fuels was only 22%. (2017 is the most recent year of free IEA data, and the only with sufficient detail). Sweden has rapidly decarbonised but the Swedish government and the Swedish bioenergy trade association […]

Australia’s Fossil Fuel Exports

Australia has become the world’s third largest exporter of fossil fuels, the largest LNG exporter, the largest metallurgical coal exporter, and the second largest thermal coal exporter. Expansion of fossil fuel extraction is underway and the Australian federal government is vehemently promoting and supporting further extraction of prodigious scale.1 2 Although the UN’s climate treaty […]

A Safe Climate

Humanity’s CO2 emissions by country for year 2018 are shown in chart 1. But chart 21 shows China and India have contributed a much smaller share of total CO2 emitted since preindustrial times. Furthermore, as shown in chart 3(a), China’s per capita carbon emissions in 2016 were near global mean (or “average”), and India’s less. Chart 3(b) […]

An Existential Threat

This page explains that the myriad of changes we are causing Earth to undergo now pose a threat to the existence of civilisation. Despite repeated warnings about climate change, civilisation has chosen not to be precautionary. Instead civilisation chooses to be reckless and hold climate science in contempt by endorsing politicians who fail to act, […]

Greenhouse Gas Emissions

To help explain how greenhouse gases heat the planet, physicist John Tyndall used a dam as an analogy:1 If water continually flows into a dam and the dam’s wall is made higher, the dam holds more water than before until it again overflows. In the same manner, the sun’s energy continually enters Earth’s atmosphere and […]


This short page hopes to summarise why and how we must change for a chance of a safe climate. Other pages listed in the Climate Crisis menu above discuss this in greater detail. Cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) determines our long-term warming commitment,1 and almost all (83%) is due to our energy emissions.2 3 The remaining […]