The Energy System of Australia

This page profiles the energy system of Australia using freely available data from the IEA1 and the method described in this site’s introduction. Australia’s energy supply is profiled first, followed by energy consumption and finally Australia’s fossil fuel exports. Being a resource-cursed nation, Australia’s national energy system in 2016 was almost entirely fossil fuelled, and […]

A Safe Climate

Humanity’s CO2 emissions by country for year 2018 are shown in chart 1. But chart 21 shows China and India have contributed a much smaller share of total CO2 emitted since preindustrial times. Furthermore, as shown in chart 3(a), China’s per capita carbon emissions in 2016 were near global mean (or “average”), and India’s less. Chart 3(b) […]

An Existential Threat

This page explains that the myriad of changes we are causing Earth to undergo now pose a threat to the existence of civilisation. Despite repeated warnings about climate change, civilisation has chosen not to be precautionary. Instead civilisation chooses to be reckless and hold climate science in contempt by endorsing politicians who fail to act, […]

Greenhouse Gas Emissions

To help explain how greenhouse gases heat the planet, physicist John Tyndall used a dam as an analogy:1 If water continually flows into a dam and the dam’s wall is made higher, the dam holds more water than before until it again overflows. In the same manner, the sun’s energy continually enters Earth’s atmosphere and […]


This short page hopes to summarise why and how we must change for a chance of a safe climate. Other pages listed in the Climate Crisis menu above discuss this in greater detail. Cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) determines our long-term warming commitment,1 and almost all is due to our energy emissions.2 The remaining carbon budget […]