World Energy Consumption

Total Final Consumption (TFC) accounts for energy consumed by an economy in its final form. For example, accounting for gas burned to produce heat separately from that burned to produce electricity.
63% of energy in 2017 was consumed directly as fossil fuels.
Energy consumption keeps increasing, mostly due to increased electricity consumption in most sectors, and oil consumption in the transport sector.

All data shown is the most recent available as of August 2020. The most recent year varies with dataset.

World TFC and electricity generation are shown in chart 1. 63% of energy in 2017 was consumed directly as fossil fuels,1 and in 2019 the same share of electricity was generated by fossil fuels.2 Data of TFC is only available in the IEA dataset.

Chart 1. World TFC in 2017 showing electricity generation in 2019.
TFC Data: IEA(2019).3 (More recent BP data is unsuitable for displaying TFC).
Electricity generation data: BP(2020).4 5 6
Dashed segment in the left hand pie chart – represents the equivalent share of electricity if the quantity produced in 2017 was produced within a 100% wind/water/solar (WWS) energy system, serving to demonstrate the remaining change needed for full electrification. The 20.8% in 2017 equates to 48.5% under WWS, as shown. The share of electricity becomes greater because total energy consumption of a 100% WWS system reduces to 42.9% of business-as-usual.7 8 9 10 11
Chart 2. World TFC. Data: IEA(2019).3
Chart 3. World TFC by form of energy. Data: IEA(2019).3
Chart 4. World TFC by economic sector. Data: IEA(2019).3 Note that Transport includes rail, aviation and shipping.

The charts below highlight the sobering relative consumption of oil in the transport sector.

Chart 5. World TFC by form of energy in each economic sector. Agriculture, fishing and ‘other’ which have relatively small energy consumption excluded for clarity. Data: IEA(2019).3 Note that Transport includes rail, aviation and shipping.
  1. 14.9% + 37.8% + 11% = 63.7%()
  2. 36.4% + 3.1% + 23.3% = 62.8%()
  5. BP does not fully account for biofuels, and these may not be carbon-neutral, as explained at
  6. Biofuels on this website are the summation of solid and liquid biofuels, and therefore Geothermal, Biofuels and Other equals the summation of BP’s data for ‘Geo, Biomass and Other’ and ‘Biofuels’.()
  7. 8.7/20.3 = 42.9%,
  9. This is due to: (a) using heat pumps for building heat; (b) using electricity for industrial heat; (c) using battery and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles; (d) eliminating mining, transportation and processing of fuels, and (e) efficiency improvements.()
  10. Also note: (i) Non-energy use of energy sources excluded (e.g. oil used for lubrication); (ii) Transport & Distribution Losses include gas distribution, electricity transmission, and coal transport, and (iii) Examples of Electricity Industry Own-Use include energy consumed in coal mines, own consumption in power plants and energy used for oil and gas extraction.()