Part 3 – A Safe Climate

Photo – Heads of delegations at the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP21), which led to the signing of the Paris Agreement.1 This post presents the current predicament of world emissions and explains the prominent studies that seek to make our climate safe. Humanity’s CO2 emissions by country for year 2016 are shown in chart 1 – But […]

Part 1 – Energy Emissions

Photo – Kooragang coal export terminal stockyards, Port Waratah Coal Services, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia.1 Humanity’s greenhouse gas emissions originate from three sectors: energy, cement manufacture and land use. This page explains that carbon dioxide (CO2) is the greenhouse gas of greatest concern, and almost all our CO2 emissions originate from our energy sector. […]

Climate & Energy Summary

Image – Warming projections, Climate Action Tracker1 This short page summarises why and how our energy systems must change for a chance of a safe climate. Parts 1, 2, and 3 of this section explain this in greater detail. Cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) determines our long-term warming commitment,2 and almost all is due to our […]


Photo – The first control of energy by humans was combustion of solid biofuels: A diorama showing Homo erectus, the earliest human species that is known to have controlled fire (National Museum of Mongolian History in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia)1, estimated to have first occurred one million years ago.2 Reports describing energy systems of the world and countries are readily […]