Our Current Path

Chart 1 shows we are still carbonising, and chart 2 shows that ‘every year energy use increases, & most of the increases come from fossil fuels.’1 In the absence of policies global warming is expected, to reach 4.1°C – 4.8°C above pre-industrial by the end of the century. The emissions that drive this warming are […]

350 ppm

Dr Hansen has published many studies, in conjunction with other scientists about climate change.1 Dr. James Hansen, formerly Director of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, is an Adjunct Professor at Columbia University’s Earth Institute, where he directs a program in Climate Science, Awareness and Solutions. Dr. Hansen is best known for his testimony on […]


To hold global average temperature steady, emissions need to reach ‘net zero’. Net zero emissions are achieved when emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere are balanced by anthropogenic removals. An increase in global average temperature of e.g. 1.5°C corresponds to a limited net amount of CO2 being emitted. This amount of CO2 is usually referred […]


The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is a treaty with the objective of: “stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.”1 This is informed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), within which “experts review and synthesize available […]

A Safe Climate

Humanity’s fossil fuel CO2 emissions by country in 2018 are shown in chart 1. But chart 21 shows China and India have contributed a much smaller share of total CO2 emitted since preindustrial times. Furthermore, chart 3(a) shows that China’s per capita carbon emissions in 2016 were near global mean (or “average”), and India’s less. Chart 3(b) […]

An Existential Threat Part 4

Human Extermination of Species Biodiversity is affected by many agents including overharvesting, introduction of exotic species, land use changes, nitrogen fertilization, and direct effects of increased atmospheric CO2 on plant ecophysiology. However, an overriding role of climate change is exposed by diverse effects of rapid warming on animals, plants, and insects in the past three decades. […]

An Existential Threat Part 3

Heat Extremes The charts below show the change of summer and winter temperatures in the northern hemisphere (NH), and summer in the southern hemisphere (SH).1 Prior to 1980, hot summers and cold summers each occurred over approximately 30% of Earth’s land area. Cold summers now occur over about 5%, and hot summers about 80% of […]

An Existential Threat Part 2

Arctic Feedback Global warming is rapidly melting Arctic sea ice, thereby triggering a fast amplifying feedback that drives further global warming. This is known as polar amplification or the sea ice/ocean surface albedo feedback: “With retreating sea ice, surface albedo decreases, air temperatures increase and the ocean can absorb more heat. The resulting ocean warming […]

An Existential Threat Part 1

This page explains that the myriad of changes we are causing Earth to undergo now pose a threat to the existence of civilisation. Despite repeated warnings about climate change, civilisation has chosen not to be precautionary. Instead civilisation chooses to be reckless and hold climate science in contempt by endorsing politicians who fail to act, […]

Greenhouse Gas Emissions

To help explain how greenhouse gases heat the planet, physicist John Tyndall used a dam as an analogy:1 If water continually flows into a dam and the dam’s wall is made higher, the dam holds more water than before until it again overflows. In the same manner, the sun’s energy continually enters Earth’s atmosphere and […]